Black Indians of Texas

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Afro -Native history
Family Oral History
 
 
 
 
 
1600 AD

 

During this era, a total of 6 million slaves were transferred. From the start of the African slave trade in 1601 to the end in 1870 slaves where brought from the west coasts of Africa to the Americas, but before than it was the Black Indians of the Americas that they sought to enslave. 

 

1619 Jamestown:  The Blacks, who were sold in Jamestown in 1619, had every reason to expect liberation after a few years.  These Blacks were indentured servants and as indentured servants their terms of servitude were fixed on the basis of their indebtedness to their masters that included the cost of the ocean voyage and other expenses incidental to coming to the New World.   Scholars have uncovered fascinating glimpses of the historic legacy.

 

In 1620 the Aro slave trading network of Arochukwu first established itself with the intent of enslaving Egbo tribes.  In regards to this task they settled in the most southeastern corner of Igboland, lands. 

 

The majority of the captives taken to the Americas were from the coastal Egbo tribes and were referred to as Calabaris.  Presently in Igboland they are known as the Efik, Ibibio, Oron and Ekoi, etc. The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as Calabaris provided the majority of "Igbo descended" captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO.  The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with "Igbo" is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the "Greater Igbo Nation". 

 

Captives arriving in the Americas from Angola were also known as Ebo.

Ebo Chief and Chief woman along side the an ancient chief woman found in Lachish.

In 1622 the colony of Jamestown, Virginia was at-tacked by Native Americans but Africans were spared. Historians question why.  However it was because as we attacked the Africans they saw our clothing and feathers and they called out to us in words we knew 'AHA, AHA' which meant brother, brother.  So a council meeting was call to find out who they were.  We saw they had a common language to our own, also the priest were sons of Aaron and they said that they were from four of the tribes of Israel that came out from the land of Israel in different times but most were from the tribe of Ephraim our brothers. After we discovered that they were our brothers from Ghana and Nigeria of the children of Israel.  They were asked how they were enslaved and what the report from the mother land was.  In the 142nd Jubilee they all came together and they all told us of our history that they knew from the time we left the land in the 97th Jubilee until the 110th Jubilee in the final dispersion of our people at the fall of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem when they arrived in the outpost of our people.

Philo of Alexandria stated that a million Jews lived between the Libyan or Cyrenian Catabathmos and the Nubian frontiers, "Knowing that the city (Alexandria) had two classes of inhabitants, our own nation and the people of the land, and that the whole of Egypt was inhabited in the same manner, and that the Jews who inhabited Alexandria and the rest of the country from the Catabathmos on the side of Libya to the boundaries of Ethiopia were not less than a million men."

Map by Professor Joseph J. Williams of Boston College showing route of Hebrew migrations.

(Solid line marks the suggested course of migration.  Broken lines indicate possible diversions with resultant tribes.)

 
 
In the Muslim Era the Yoruba were push down and farther into Eboland by Muslims.  Conflicts arose between the Ashanti and Ebos with the newcomers (Yoruba) that trailed off into battles and wars that lasted for many generations until the arrival of the Europeans to the area.  The Europeans used the conflicts between the two in order to supply their newly started African slave trade system.  So Yoruba captured and sold Ebos (Igbo, Ibo, Egbo) into slavery and remaining tribes from the Ebos sold the Yoruba as well into slavery in order to rid themselves of the other from the territory. 

Later, when African slaves were brought to the Americas, they mixed with Black Indians from North America to South America. In the early days of slavery, peoples of the Americas and Africans were enslaved together. Sometimes, African slaves escaped to Black Indian villages on various parts of the American continent. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the percentage of Black Native Americans is projected to be much higher than in the United States. Since the earliest days of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Africans have merged with indigenous peoples in South and Central America.        

From this point in time there became two definitions of Black Indians in the Americas.

In pre-Colombian times, Black Indians are also thought to be a virtually extinct type of indigenous people of the Americas who appeared to possess African racial features. There is evidence to suggest that perhaps in the North, Central, South and Caribbean Americas these "negro" Indians were still existent at the time of European colonization.  Tribes like the Olmecs, Califans, Yamassee, Washitaw, Gwale and the Anasazi have all been described as "negro" by the white people who came into contact with them. Some Native American groups have words in theory to describe the peoples who inhabited the Americas before them. For example, the word "Anasazi" is a Navajo word meaning "the ancient ones".  Yet once the arrival of the slaves brought over from Africa by the Europeans the term 'Black Indians' is generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans.

Alex Haley's successful tracking of Kunte Kinte gave the hunt for African ancestors a needed shove forward. But driven by their stubborn will and searching eye, as researchers fanned out in pursuit of African connections, another vision appeared. First as a recurring distraction, then a source of wonder, geological detectives stumbled on Native American ancestors. Alex Haley was hardly alone when he also discovered Native American roots to his family tree.   According to the Newberry Library in Chicago, many African-Americans have traditions of Cherokee ancestry, sometimes leading them to look for "Cherokee records":  (Guion Miller rolls.  Call#: Microfilm 1181) or (Old Settler rolls.  Call#: Ayer foE99.C5H35)

Though, often unmentioned except in family circles, this biological legacy has been shared by such figures as Crispus Attucks, Frederick Douglass, John Mercer Langston, Bass Reeves, James Beckwourth, Josephine Baker, Martin Luther King Jr., Langston Hughes, Lena Horne, Alice Walker, Jesse Jackson, Michael Jackson, Christopher Judge, Della Reese, Willie Stargell, James Earl Jones, Salli Richardson, Whoopi Goldberg, Tina Turner, Eazy-E, Jimi Hendrix, Chris Tucker, The Game, Aaliyah, L.L. Cool J, Tiger Woods and Oprah Winfrey (a part of our family on my grandmother's father's side.  Her maiden name was Eula Lee, the daughter of Archie Lee, son of Herbert Lee, son of Jim Lee, son of Harry Lee, SLAVE OF GEORGE H LEE IN 1865, and son of John Lee of Sunflower Mississippi). Today virtually every African American family tree boasts an Indian branch.

This uniquely "only in America" relationship began with the earliest foreign landings in the New World. From Nova Scotia to Cape Horn, and along the jewel-like islands of the Caribbean, Europeans imposed a slave system first on Native Americans. Then, as millions of Indian fell victim to overwork, disease and brutality, kidnapped Africans began to take their places.

There in the misty dawn of the Americas two peoples of color began to meet in slave huts, on tobacco and cotton plantations, and as workers in dank mines. For two centuries Indians and Africans remained enslaved together, and Native Americans were not exempted from the system until after the Revolution. Scholar C. Vann Woodward has concluded "If the black-red inter-breeding was anywhere as extensive as suggested by the testimony of ex-slaves, then the monoracial concept of slavery in America requires revision."

In hard-to-reach backwaters of the Americas, two people of color people began to build their own "maroon" colonies. Some were outlaw bands, raiders who preyed on whites, slaves and Indians alike, and lived a short, brutish life. But other maroons depended on family farming and herding and built peaceful relations and trade with Indian villages, slaves, and former masters. European officials judged maroons, in the words of a French historian, "the gangrene of colonial society." Their success as independent economic societies refuted white claims of African inferiority. Each day Maroons proved once slaves wrenched free they could govern themselves and prosper. Further, maroon encampments served as beacons for discontented slaves in a radius of a hundred miles, and stood as a clear and present danger to the European conquest. Some whites saw maroons as a knife pressed against the thin line of their rule, and they had a point.

In 1638 the first blacks imported to Connecticut from the West Indies to be exchanged for Black natives of the area.

Maroon Warriors
 
1640 Virginia: The English Colonies radically changed the status of Blacks when they began enacting slave laws that made Blacks permanent slaves by virtue of their skin color. 

 

The Egbo Society communicated by using a secret Igbo writing system known as that of Nsibidi.  Nsibidi symbols were recently discovered to be engraved on a number of African-American tombstones in Virginia.

 

On Aug. 10, 1680 was the Pueblo Indian rebellion against Spanish rule in New Mexico. The Pueblo rose against enforced Ch

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Afro -Native history Family Oral History 1600 AD During this era, a total of 6 million slaves were transferred. From the start of the African slave trade in 1601 to the end in 1870 slaves where brought from the west coasts of Africa to the Americas, but before than it was the Black Indians of the Americas that they sought to enslave. 1619 Jamestown: The Blacks, who were sold in Jamestown in 1619, had every reason to expect liberation after a few years. These Blacks were indentured servants and as indentured servants their terms of servitude were fixed on the basis of their indebtedness to their masters that included the cost of the ocean voyage and other expenses incidental to coming to the New World. Scholars have uncovered fascinating glimpses of the historic legacy. In 1620 the Aro slave trading network of Arochukwu first established itself with the intent of enslaving Egbo tribes. In regards to this task they settled in the most southeastern corner of Igboland, lands. The majority of the captives taken to the Americas were from the coastal Egbo tribes and were referred to as Calabaris. Presently in Igboland they are known as the Efik, Ibibio, Oron and Ekoi, etc. The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as Calabaris provided the majority of "Igbo descended" captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with "Igbo" is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the "Greater Igbo Nation". Captives arriving in the Americas from Angola were also known as Ebo. Ebo Chief and Chief woman along side the an ancient chief woman found in Lachish. In 1622 the colony of Jamestown, Virginia was at-tacked by Native Americans but Africans were spared. Historians question why. However it was because as we attacked the Africans they saw our clothing and feathers and they called out to us in words we knew 'AHA, AHA' which meant brother, brother. So a council meeting was call to find out who they were. We saw they had a common language to our own, also the priest were sons of Aaron and they said that they were from four of the tribes of Israel that came out from the land of Israel in different times but most were from the tribe of Ephraim our brothers. After we discovered that they were our brothers from Ghana and Nigeria of the children of Israel. They were asked how they were enslaved and what the report from the mother land was. In the 142nd Jubilee they all came together and they all told us of our history that they knew from the time we left the land in the 97th Jubilee until the 110th Jubilee in the final dispersion of our people at the fall of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem when they arrived in the outpost of our people. Philo of Alexandria stated that a million Jews lived between the Libyan or Cyrenian Catabathmos and the Nubian frontiers, "Knowing that the city (Alexandria) had two classes of inhabitants, our own nation and the people of the land, and that the whole of Egypt was inhabited in the same manner, and that the Jews who inhabited Alexandria and the rest of the country from the Catabathmos on the side of Libya to the boundaries of Ethiopia were not less than a million men." Map by Professor Joseph J. Williams of Boston College showing route of Hebrew migrations. (Solid line marks the suggested course of migration. Broken lines indicate possible diversions with resultant tribes.) In the Muslim Era the Yoruba were push down and farther into Eboland by Muslims. Conflicts arose between the Ashanti and Ebos with the newcomers (Yoruba) that trailed off into battles and wars that lasted for many generations until the arrival of the Europeans to the area. The Europeans used the conflicts between the two in order to supply their newly started African slave trade system. So Yoruba captured and sold Ebos (Igbo, Ibo, Egbo) into slavery and remaining tribes from the Ebos sold the Yoruba as well into slavery in order to rid themselves of the other from the territory. Later, when African slaves were brought to the Americas, they mixed with Black Indians from North America to South America. In the early days of slavery, peoples of the Americas and Africans were enslaved together. Sometimes, African slaves escaped to Black Indian villages on various parts of the American continent. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the percentage of Black Native Americans is projected to be much higher than in the United States. Since the earliest days of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Africans have merged with indigenous peoples in South and Central America. From this point in time there became two definitions of Black Indians in the Americas. In pre-Colombian times, Black Indians are also thought to be a virtually extinct type of indigenous people of the Americas who appeared to possess African racial features. There is evidence to suggest that perhaps in the North, Central, South and Caribbean Americas these "negro" Indians were still existent at the time of European colonization. Tribes like the Olmecs, Califans, Yamassee, Washitaw, Gwale and the Anasazi have all been described as "negro" by the white people who came into contact with them. Some Native American groups have words in theory to describe the peoples who inhabited the Americas before them. For example, the word "Anasazi" is a Navajo word meaning "the ancient ones". Yet once the arrival of the slaves brought over from Africa by the Europeans the term 'Black Indians' is generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. Alex Haley's successful tracking of Kunte Kinte gave the hunt for African ancestors a needed shove forward. But driven by their stubborn will and searching eye, as researchers fanned out in pursuit of African connections, another vision appeared. First as a recurring distraction, then a source of wonder, geological detectives stumbled on Native American ancestors. Alex Haley was hardly alone when he also discovered Native American roots to his family tree. According to the Newberry Library in Chicago, many African-Americans have traditions of Cherokee ancestry, sometimes leading them to look for "Cherokee records": (Guion Miller rolls. Call#: Microfilm 1181) or (Old Settler rolls. Call#: Ayer foE99.C5H35) Though, often unmentioned except in family circles, this biological legacy has been shared by such figures as Crispus Attucks, Frederick Douglass, John Mercer Langston, Bass Reeves, James Beckwourth, Josephine Baker, Martin Luther King Jr., Langston Hughes, Lena Horne, Alice Walker, Jesse Jackson, Michael Jackson, Christopher Judge, Della Reese, Willie Stargell, James Earl Jones, Salli Richardson, Whoopi Goldberg, Tina Turner, Eazy-E, Jimi Hendrix, Chris Tucker, The Game, Aaliyah, L.L. Cool J, Tiger Woods and Oprah Winfrey (a part of our family on my grandmother's father's side. Her maiden name was Eula Lee, the daughter of Archie Lee, son of Herbert Lee, son of Jim Lee, son of Harry Lee, SLAVE OF GEORGE H LEE IN 1865, and son of John Lee of Sunflower Mississippi). Today virtually every African American family tree boasts an Indian branch. This uniquely "only in America" relationship began with the earliest foreign landings in the New World. From Nova Scotia to Cape Horn, and along the jewel-like islands of the Caribbean, Europeans imposed a slave system first on Native Americans. Then, as millions of Indian fell victim to overwork, disease and brutality, kidnapped Africans began to take their places. There in the misty dawn of the Americas two peoples of color began to meet in slave huts, on tobacco and cotton plantations, and as workers in dank mines. For two centuries Indians and Africans remained enslaved together, and Native Americans were not exempted from the system until after the Revolution. Scholar C. Vann Woodward has concluded "If the black-red inter-breeding was anywhere as extensive as suggested by the testimony of ex-slaves, then the monoracial concept of slavery in America requires revision." In hard-to-reach backwaters of the Americas, two people of color people began to build their own "maroon" colonies. Some were outlaw bands, raiders who preyed on whites, slaves and Indians alike, and lived a short, brutish life. But other maroons depended on family farming and herding and built peaceful relations and trade with Indian villages, slaves, and former masters. European officials judged maroons, in the words of a French historian, "the gangrene of colonial society." Their success as independent economic societies refuted white claims of African inferiority. Each day Maroons proved once slaves wrenched free they could govern themselves and prosper. Further, maroon encampments served as beacons for discontented slaves in a radius of a hundred miles, and stood as a clear and present danger to the European conquest. Some whites saw maroons as a knife pressed against the thin line of their rule, and they had a point. In 1638 the first blacks imported to Connecticut from the West Indies to be exchanged for Black natives of the area. Maroon Warriors 1640 Virginia: The English Colonies radically changed the status of Blacks when they began enacting slave laws that made Blacks permanent slaves by virtue of their skin color. The Egbo Society communicated by using a secret Igbo writing system known as that of Nsibidi. Nsibidi symbols were recently discovered to be engraved on a number of African-American tombstones in Virginia. On Aug. 10, 1680 was the Pueblo Indian rebellion against Spanish rule in New Mexico. The Pueblo rose against enforced Ch
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